Jump to content

Peggy Lee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Peggy Lee
Lee in 1950
Norma Deloris Egstrom

(1920-05-26)May 26, 1920
DiedJanuary 21, 2002(2002-01-21) (aged 81)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Resting placeWestwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery
  • Singer
  • songwriter
  • actress
Known for
  • (m. 1943; div. 1951)
  • (m. 1953; div. 1953)
  • (m. 1956; div. 1958)
  • Jack Del Rio
    (m. 1964; div. 1964)
Musical career
OriginValley City, Jamestown, Wimbledon, Fargo, North Dakota
Instrument(s)Vocals (Contralto)
DiscographyPeggy Lee discography
Years active1936–2000

Norma Deloris Egstrom[a] (May 26, 1920 – January 21, 2002), known professionally as Peggy Lee, was an American jazz and popular music singer, songwriter, and actress whose career spanned seven decades. From her beginning as a vocalist on local radio to singing with Benny Goodman's big band, Lee created a sophisticated persona, writing music for films, acting, and recording conceptual record albums combining poetry and music. Called the "Queen of American pop music,"[10] Lee recorded more than 1,100 masters and co-wrote over 270 songs.

Early life[edit]

Lee was born Norma Deloris Egstrom in Jamestown, North Dakota, United States, on May 26, 1920, the seventh of the eight children of Selma Emele (née Anderson) Egstrom and Marvin Olaf Egstrom, a station agent for the Midland Continental Railroad. Her family were Lutherans.[11] Her father was Swedish-American and her mother was Norwegian-American.[12] After her mother died when Lee was four,[13] her father married Minnie Schaumberg Wiese.[14] His family's original name was Ekström.[15]

Lee and her family lived in several towns along the Midland Continental Railroad (Jamestown, Nortonville and Wimbledon). She graduated from Wimbledon High School in 1937.[16]

Lee began singing from a young age. In Wimbledon, Lee was the female singer for a six-piece college dance band with leader Lyle "Doc" Haines. She traveled to various locations with Haines's quintet on Fridays after school and on weekends.[17]

Lee first sang professionally over KOVC radio in Valley City, North Dakota, in 1936.[18] She later had her own 15-minute Saturday radio show sponsored by a local restaurant that paid her salary in food. Both during and after her high-school years, Lee sang for small sums on local radio stations.

In October 1937, radio personality Ken Kennedy, of WDAY in Fargo, (the most widely heard station in North Dakota), auditioned her and put her on the air that day, but not before he changed her name to Peggy Lee.[19]

Lee left home and traveled to Hollywood, California, at the age of 17 in March 1938. Her first job was seasonal work on Balboa Island, Newport Beach as a short order cook and waitress at Harry's Cafe. When the job ended after Easter, she was hired to work as a carnival barker at the Balboa Fun Zone. She wrote about this experience in the song, "The Nickel Ride", which she composed with Dave Grusin for the 1974 film of the same name.[17]

Later in 1938, Lee returned to Hollywood to audition for the MC at The Jade. Her employment was cut short when she fainted onstage due to overwork and an inadequate diet. After she was taken to the Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center she was told she needed a tonsillectomy. Lee returned to North Dakota for the operation.[20]

The following year, remaining in North Dakota, she was hired to perform regularly at The Powers Hotel in Fargo, and toured with both the Sev Olson and the Will Osborne Orchestras.[21] In 1939 she was also again broadcasting at WDAY.[22]

When Lee returned to California in 1940, she took a job singing at The Doll House in Palm Springs. Here, she developed her trademark sultry purr, having decided to compete with the noisy crowd with subtlety rather than volume.

Peggy Lee, famous for her sultry singing voice, featured in a cigarette ad in 1953
Peggy Lee, famous for her sultry singing voice, featured in a cigarette ad in 1953

I knew I couldn't sing over them, so I decided to sing under them. The more noise they made, the more softly I sang. When they discovered they couldn't hear me, they began to look at me. Then, they began to listen. As I sang, I kept thinking, 'softly with feeling'. The noise dropped to a hum; the hum gave way to silence. I had learned how to reach and hold my audience—softly, with feeling."[17]

While performing at The Doll House, Lee met Frank Bering, the owner of the Ambassador East and West in Chicago. He offered her a gig at the Buttery Room, a nightclub in the Ambassador Hotel West. There, she was noticed by bandleader Benny Goodman. According to Lee:

Benny's then-fiancée, Lady Alice Duckworth, came into the Buttery, and she was very impressed. So the next evening, she brought Benny in, because they were looking for a replacement for Helen Forrest. And although I didn't know, I was it. He was looking at me strangely, I thought, but it was just his preoccupied way of looking. I thought that he didn't like me at first, but it just was that he was preoccupied with what he was hearing.

She joined his band in August 1941 and made her first recording, singing "Elmer's Tune". Lee stayed with the Benny Goodman Orchestra for two years.[23][24]

Recording career[edit]

In 1942, Lee had her first top ten hit, "Somebody Else Is Taking My Place",[25] followed in 1943 by "Why Don't You Do Right?", which sold more than one million copies and made her famous.[26] She sang with Goodman's orchestra in two 1943 films, Stage Door Canteen and The Powers Girl.

In March 1943, Lee married Dave Barbour, a guitarist in Goodman's band.[18] Lee said:

David joined Benny's band and there was a ruling that no one should fraternize with the girl singer. But I fell in love with David the first time I heard him play, and so I married him. Benny then fired David, so I quit, too. Benny and I made up, although David didn't play with him anymore. Benny stuck to his rule. I think that's not too bad a rule, but you can't help falling in love with somebody.

— Peggy Lee

...when she left the band that spring [1943], her intention was to quit the footlights altogether and become Mrs. Barbour, fulltime housewife. It's to Mr. Barbour's credit that he refused to let his wife's singing and composing talent lie dormant for too long. "I fell in love with David Barbour," she recalled. "But 'Why Don't You Do Right' was such a giant hit that I kept getting offers and kept turning them down. And at that time it was a lot of money, but it really didn't matter to me at all. I was very happy. All I wanted was to have a family and cling to the children [daughter Nicki]. Well, they kept talking to me and finally David joined them and said 'You really have too much talent to stay at home and someday you might regret it.'"

— Liner notes written by Will Friedwald[27]

She drifted back to songwriting and occasional recording sessions for Capitol Records in 1944, for whom she recorded a long string of hits, many of them with lyrics and music by Lee and Barbour, including "I Don't Know Enough About You" and "It's a Good Day". Her recording of "Golden Earrings", the title song of a 1947 movie, was a hit throughout 1947–1948. "Mañana", written by Lee and Barbour, was her eleventh solo hit recording, and remained on the charts for twenty-one weeks, nine of which were in the number one position. The song sold more than a million copies, and earned the Top Disc Jockey Record of the Year award from Billboard magazine.[28] From 1946 to 1949, Lee also recorded for Capitol's library of electrical transcriptions for radio stations. An advertisement for Capitol Transcriptions in a trade magazine noted that the transcriptions included "special voice introductions by Peggy".[29]

In 1948, Lee joined vocalists Perry Como and Jo Stafford as a host of the NBC Radio musical program The Chesterfield Supper Club.[30][31] She was a regular on The Jimmy Durante Show and appeared frequently on Bing Crosby's radio shows during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Her relationship with Capitol spanned almost three decades aside from a brief detour (1952–1956) at Decca.[32] For that label, she recorded Black Coffee and had hit singles such as "Lover" and "Mister Wonderful".

In 1958, she recorded her own version of "Fever" by Little Willie John, written by Eddie Cooley and John Davenport.[33] Lee created a new arrangement for the song, and added lyrics ("Romeo loved Juliet", "Captain Smith and Pocahontas"), which she neglected to copyright. Her new version of "Fever" was a hit, and was nominated in three categories at the First Annual Grammy Awards in 1959, including Record of the Year and Song of the Year.[34]

While Lee was in London for a 1970 engagement at Royal Albert Hall, she invited Paul and Linda McCartney to dinner at The Dorchester. At the dinner, the couple gifted Lee with a song they had written entitled, "Let's Love". In July 1974, with Paul McCartney producing, Lee recorded the song at the Record Plant in Los Angeles, and it became the title track for her 40th album, her only one on Atlantic Records.[20]

Acting career[edit]

Photo of Peggy Lee and Danny Thomas from The Jazz Singer
Photo of Peggy Lee and Danny Thomas from The Jazz Singer

Lee starred opposite Danny Thomas in The Jazz Singer (1952), a remake of the Al Jolson film, The Jazz Singer (1927). She played an alcoholic blues singer in Pete Kelly's Blues (1955), for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.[35]

Lee provided speaking and singing voices for several characters in the Disney movie Lady and the Tramp (1955), playing the human Darling, the dog Peg, and the two Siamese cats, Si and Am. She also co-wrote, with Sonny Burke, all of the original songs for the film, including "He's A Tramp", "Bella Notte", "La La Lu", "The Siamese Cat Song", and "Peace on Earth". In 1987, when Lady and the Tramp was released on VHS, Lee sought performance and song royalties on the video sales. When the Disney company refused to pay, she filed a lawsuit in 1988. After a prolonged legal battle, in 1992, Lee was awarded $2.3 million for breach of contract, plus $500,000 for unjust enrichment, $600,000 for illegal use of Lee's voice and $400,000 for the use of her name.[36][37]

Peggy Lee also wrote the lyrics for "Johnny Guitar" (with music composer Victor Young), the title track of the 1954 film, Johnny Guitar, which she sings partially at the end of the movie.

During her career, Lee appeared in hundreds of variety shows, and several TV movies and specials.

Personal life[edit]

Lee was married four times: to guitarist and composer Dave Barbour (1943–1951),[38][39] actor Brad Dexter (1953), actor Dewey Martin (1956–1958), and percussionist Jack Del Rio (1964).[20] All the marriages ended in divorce.

On November 11, 1943, Lee gave birth to her only child, daughter Nicki Lee Foster (1943–2014), in her marriage to Barbour.[40]

Lee learned Transcendental Meditation and said she was taught "by the Maharishi personally and that was a great honor."[41]


The Peggy Lee bench-style burial monument

Lee continued to perform into the 1990s, sometimes using a wheelchair.[42] After years of poor health, she died of complications from diabetes and a heart attack on January 21, 2002, at the age of 81.[43] She was cremated and her ashes were buried with a bench-style monument in Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles.[44]

Awards and honors[edit]

Lee was nominated for 13 Grammy Awards. In 1969, her hit "Is That All There Is?" won her the Grammy for Best Contemporary Vocal Performance. In 1995, she was given the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.[34]

She received the Rough Rider Award from the state of North Dakota in 1975,[45] the Pied Piper Award from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers in 1990,[46] the Ella Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Society of Singers in 1994,[47] the Living Legacy Award from the Women's International Center in 1994,[48] and the Presidents Award from the Songwriters Guild of America in 1999.[49] Other honors include induction into the Big Band Jazz Hall of Fame in 1992,[50] the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1999,[51] and the Songbook Hall of Fame from the Great American Songbook Foundation in 2020.[52]

Tributes and legacy[edit]

Lee is often cited as the inspiration for the Margarita cocktail. In 1948, after a trip to Mexico, she and her husband ventured into the Balinese Room in Galveston, Texas. She requested a drink similar to one she had had in Mexico, and the head bartender, Santos Cruz, created the Margarita, and named it after the Spanish version of Peggy's name.[53]

Lee was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for Recording in 1960. The star is located at 6319 Hollywood Boulevard in California.[54]

Baseball's Tug McGraw, whose career with both the New York Mets and Philadelphia Phillies ranged from 1965 to 1984, named one of his pitches the Peggy Lee. He explained to The Philadelphia Inquirer: "That's the one where the hitter is out in front of it and says, 'Is that all there is?'"[55]

In 1971, Lee sang the Lord's Prayer at the funeral of Louis Armstrong.[56]

The designer of the Miss Piggy Muppet, Bonnie Erickson, who grew up in Lee's home state of North Dakota, used the singer as inspiration for the Miss Piggy character in 1974. Originally called Miss Piggy Lee, her name was shortened to Miss Piggy when the Muppet gained fame.[57]

In 1975, Lee received an honorary doctorate in music from North Dakota State University,[20] and in 2000, she received another from Jamestown University.[58]

In 1983, Lee had a hybrid tea rose named in her honor that was pink with a touch of peach. The Peggy Lee Rose was the 1983 American Beauty Rose of the Year.[59][60]

In 2003, "There'll Be Another Spring: A Tribute to Miss Peggy Lee" was held at Carnegie Hall.[61] Produced by recording artist Richard Barone, the sold-out event included performances by Cy Coleman, Debbie Harry, Nancy Sinatra, Rita Moreno, Marian McPartland, Chris Connor, Petula Clark, Maria Muldaur, Dee Dee Bridgewater, Quincy Jones, Shirley Horn, and others. In 2004, Barone brought the event to a sold-out Hollywood Bowl,[62] and then to Chicago's Ravinia Festival, with expanded casts including Maureen McGovern, Jack Jones, and Bea Arthur.[63] The Carnegie Hall concert was broadcast on NPR's JazzSet.

The Wimbledon depot building, where she and her family lived and worked, became the Midland Continental Depot Transportation Museum, featuring The Peggy Lee Exhibit, in 2012. The upper floor of the museum, where the Egstrom family once lived, features exhibits that trace Lee's career and her regional and state connection.[16]

On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Lee's birth, May 26, 2020, The Grammy Museum hosted an online panel discussion featuring musicians Billie Eilish, k.d. lang, Eric Burton (The Black Pumas), as well as Lee's granddaughter, Holly Foster Wells, and the author of Peggy Lee: A Century of Song, Dr. Tish Oney.[64]

Lee has been noted as a musical influence on other artists such as Paul McCartney,[65] Madonna, Beyoncé,[66] k.d. lang,[67] Elvis Costello,[68] Diana Krall,[69] Dusty Springfield,[70] Rita Coolidge,[71] Rita Moreno,[72] and Billie Eilish.[73]

In 2020, the ASCAP Foundation, along with Lee's family, established the annual Peggy Lee Songwriter Award. The inaugural award went to Michael Blum and Jenna Lotti for their song, "Fake ID".[74]



Lee wrote or co-wrote more than 270 songs.[28] In addition to her own material to sing, she was hired to score and compose songs for movies. For the Disney movie Lady and the Tramp, she co-composed all of the original songs with Burke, and supplied the singing and speaking voices of four characters.[75]

Over the years, her songwriting collaborators included David Barbour, Laurindo Almeida, Harold Arlen, Sonny Burke, Cy Coleman, Duke Ellington, Dave Grusin, Quincy Jones, Francis Lai, Jack Marshall, Johnny Mandel, Marian McPartland, Willard Robison, Lalo Schifrin, and Victor Young.

Lee's first published song was in 1941, "Little Fool". "What More Can a Woman Do?" was recorded by Sarah Vaughan with Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker. "Mañana (Is Soon Enough for Me)" was number one on the Billboard singles chart for nine weeks in 1948, from the week of March 13 to May 8.

Lee was a mainstay of Capitol Records when rock and roll came onto the American music scene. She was among the first of the "old guard" to recognize this new genre, as seen by her recording music from the Beatles, Randy Newman, Carole King, James Taylor, and other up-and-coming songwriters. From 1957 until her final disc for the company in 1972, she produced a steady stream of two or three albums per year that usually included standards (often arranged quite differently from the original), her own compositions, and material from young artists.

Many of her compositions have become standards, performed by singers such as Tony Bennett, Nat King Cole, Natalie Cole, Bing Crosby, Doris Day, Ella Fitzgerald, Judy Garland, Diana Krall, Queen Latifah, Barry Manilow, Bette Midler, Janelle Monae, Nina Simone, Regina Spektor, Sarah Vaughan and others.[76]

Chart hits[edit]



Title Notes Peak Pop chart position Date
"I Got It Bad and That Ain't Good" With Benny Goodman 25 11/15/41
"Winter Weather" Duet with Art Lund with Benny Goodman 24 1/10/42
"Blues in the Night" With Benny Goodman 20 2/14/42
"Somebody Else is Taking My Place" With Benny Goodman 1 3/7/42
"My Little Cousin" With Benny Goodman 14 4/11/42
"We'll Meet Again With Benny Goodman 16 5/23/42
"Full Moon (Noche de Luna)" With Benny Goodman 22 6/13/42
"The Way You Look Tonight" With Benny Goodman 21 6/27/42
Why Don't You Do Right?" With Benny Goodman 4 1/2/43
"Waitin' for the Train to Come In" 4 11/10/45
"I'm Glad I Waited for You" 24 3/30/46
"I Don't Know Enough About You" 7 5/25/46
"Linger in My Arms a Little Longer, Baby" 16 9/28/46
"It's All Over Now" 10 11/23/46
"It's a Good Day" 16 1/18/47
"Everything's Moving Too Fast" 21 2/8/47
"Chi-baba, Chi-baba (My Bambino, Go to Sleep)" 10 6/28/47
"Golden Earrings" 2 11/15/47
"I'll Dance at Your Wedding" 11 12/20/47
"Mañana" 1 1/24/48
"All Dressed Up With a Broken Heart" 21 1/31/48
"For Every Man There's a Woman" 25 2/28/48
"Laroo, Laroo, Lili Bolero" 13 4/3/48
"Talking to Myself About You" 23 4/17/48
"Don't Smoke in Bed" 22 5/15/48
"Caramba! It's the Samba!" 13 6/5/48
"Baby, Don't Be Mad at Me" 21 6/5/48
"Somebody Else Is Taking My Place" Reissue of 1942 single 30 6/19/48
"Bubble Loo, Bubble Loo" 23 7/3/48
"Blum Blum, I Wonder Who I Am" 27 3/12/49
"Similau (See-Me-Lo)" 17 4/23/49
"Bali Ha'i" 13 5/14/49
"Riders in the Sky (A Cowboy Legend)" 2 5/28/49
"The Old Master Painter" Duet with Mel Tormé 9 1/7/50
"Show Me the Way to Get Out of This World" 28 8/26/50
"(When I Dance with You) I Get Ideas" 14 9/8/51
"Be Anything (But Be Mine)" 21 5/24/52
"Lover" 3 6/7/52
"Watermelon Weather" Duet with Bing Crosby 28 7/26/52
"Just One of Those Things" 14 8/2/52
"River, River" 23 11/22/52
"Who's Gonna Pay the Check?" 22 5/23/53
"Baubles, Bangles and Beads" 30 12/5/53
"Where Can I Go Without You?" 28 3/13/54
"Let Me Go, Lover" 26 12/18/54
"Mr. Wonderful" 14 3/3/56
"Joey, Joey, Joey" 76 5/5/56
"Fever" 8 7/14/58
"Light of Love" 63 11/3/58
"Sweetheart" 98 11/24/58
"Alright, Okay, You Win" 68 1/26/59
"My Man" 81 1/19/59
"Hallelujah, I Love Him So" 77 8/18/59
"I'm a Woman" 54 1/5/63
"Pass Me By" Adult Contemporary chart 20 3/13/65
"Free Spirits" Adult Contemporary chart 29 10/23/65
"Big Spender" Adult Contemporary chart 9 1/29/66
"That Man" Adult Contemporary chart 31 4/9/66
"You've Got Possibilities" Adult Contemporary chart 6 6/18/66
"So What's New" Adult Contemporary chart 20 10/15/66
"Walking Happy" Adult Contemporary chart 14 10/22/66
"I Feel It" Adult Contemporary chart 8 9/30/67
"Spinning Wheel" Adult Contemporary chart 24 5/3/69
"Is That All There Is?" Adult Contemporary chart 1 9/1/69
"Is That All There Is?" 11 9/27/69
"Whistle for Happiness" Adult Contemporary chart 13 12/20/69
"Love Story" Adult Contemporary chart 26 2/7/70
"You'll Remember Me" Adult Contemporary chart 16 5/9/70
"One More Ride on the Merry-Go-Round" Adult Contemporary chart 21 10/3/70
"Love Song" Adult Contemporary chart 34 10/7/72
"Let's Love" Adult Contemporary chart 22 11/2/74


Title Notes Peak Pop chart position Date
Songs from White Christmas With Bing Crosby and Danny Kaye 2 1/1/55
Songs from Pete Kelly's Blues With Ella Fitzgerald 7 9/17/55
The Man I Love 20 9/23/57
Jump for Joy 15 7/14/58
Things Are Swingin’ 16 12/8/58
Beauty and the Beat 19 9/12/59
Latin ala Lee 11 4/11/60
Basin Street East Proudly Presents Miss Peggy Lee 77 9/11/61
Bewitching-Lee! 85 8/25/62
Sugar ‘n’ Spice 40 11/17/62
I'm a Woman 18 3/9/63
Mink Jazz 42 7/27/63
In the Name of Love 97 9/26/64
Pass Me By 145 5/22/65
Big Spender 130 7/30/66
Is That All There Is? 55 12/13/69
Bridge Over Troubled Water 142 6/6/70
Make It With You 194 12/19/70


  • Friedwald, Will. Liner notes for The Best of Peggy Lee: The Capitol Years.
  • Gavin, James. Is That All There Is? – The Strange Life of Peggy Lee. Atria Books, 2014. ISBN 978-1-4516-4168-4
  • Lee, Peggy. Miss Peggy Lee: An Autobiography. Donald I. Fine, 1989. ISBN 978-1-5561-1112-9
  • Oney, Dr. Tish Oney, Peggy Lee: A Century of Song. Rowman & Littlefield, 2020. ISBN 978-1-5381-2847-3
  • Richmond, Peter, Fever: The Life and Music of Miss Peggy Lee. Henry Holt and Company, 2006. ISBN 0-8050-7383-3
  • Strom, Robert. Miss Peggy Lee: A Career Chronicle. McFarland Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7864-1936-9


  1. ^ Sources vary as to the spelling of Lee's birth surname. She specified it as "Egstrom" in her autobiography,[1] a spelling accepted by sources such Britannica,[2] the New York Times obituary,[3] and the website peggylee.com maintained by her estate.[4] However, other sources give the name as "Engstrom."[5][6][7][8][9]


  1. ^ Peggy Lee (April 16, 1989). Miss Peggy Lee: A Biography. D. Fine. ISBN 1556111126.
  2. ^ Peggy Lee, Encyclopaedia Britannica, March 8, 2024, retrieved March 20, 2024
  3. ^ Enid Nemy (January 23, 2002), "Peggy Lee, Singer Whose Understated Style Kept Sizzling for Six Decades, Dies at 81", The New York Times, retrieved March 20, 2024
  4. ^ Peggy Lee: Biography, peggylee.com, retrieved March 20, 2024
  5. ^ Klemesrud, Judy (April 26, 1970). "Peggy Lee Is Still On Top—Is That All There Is?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 25, 2023.
  6. ^ "Peggy Lee". TVGuide.com. Retrieved November 25, 2023.
  7. ^ Pendle, Karin, ed. (2001). Women & music: a history (2 ed.). Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press. p. 469. ISBN 978-0-253-33819-8.
  8. ^ "Peggy Lee – Celebrating the Music of North Dakota!". Retrieved November 25, 2023.
  9. ^ "Passage: Peggy Lee, 81". Wired. January 22, 2002. Retrieved November 25, 2023.
  10. ^ Deutsch, Linda (November 4, 1972). "'The Queen' of Pop Music Holding Tightly to Crown". The Deseret News. p. T1. Retrieved June 14, 2023.
  11. ^ Stevenson, Kate (October 26, 2005). "Miss Peggy Lee". University of Jamestown. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  12. ^ "Nättidningen Rötter – för dig som släktforskar! (Släkthistoriskt Forum)". Genealogi.se. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
  13. ^ Torresen, David (content) and Uy, David (design). "Biography – Current Biography". PeggyLee.com. Retrieved December 15, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Eriksmoen, Curt (May 13, 2012). "Peggy Lee had a difficult childhood". Bismarcktribune.com. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  15. ^ Gavin, James (November 11, 2014). Is That All There Is?. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781451641684.
  16. ^ a b "MIDLAND CONTINENTAL DEPOT TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM FEATURING PEGGY LEE". ndtourism.com. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  17. ^ a b c Lee, Peggy (1989). Miss Peggy Lee. Donald I. Fine. pp. 74–76. ISBN 1-55611-112-6.
  18. ^ a b Ciment, James; Russell, Thaddeus (2007). The Home Front Encyclopedia: United States, Britain, and Canada in World Wars I and II. ABC-CLIO. p. 654. ISBN 978-1-57607-849-5. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  19. ^ McMorrow, Merle W. (December 2010). A Long Short Life: The Trials, Tribulations, Travels, and Trivia of an 88 Year Old Kid. Trafford Publishing. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-4269-4938-8. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c d Richmond, Peter (2007). Fever : the life and music of Miss Peggy Lee (1st Picador ed.). New York: Picador/Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0312426613. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  21. ^ "100 Jazz Profiles". BBC Radio 3. January 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  22. ^ "Behind the Dial with WDAY" (promotional volume), 1939, n.p
  23. ^ Balliett, Whitney (2006). American Singers: Twenty-Seven Portraits in Song. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-57806-835-7. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  24. ^ Mackin, Tom (June 1, 2008). Brief Encounters: From Einstein to Elvis. AuthorHouse. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-4343-8561-1. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  25. ^ Gilliland, John (1994). Pop Chronicles the 40s: The Lively Story of Pop Music in the 40s (audiobook). ISBN 978-1-55935-147-8. OCLC 31611854. Tape 2, side B.
  26. ^ Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
  27. ^ Liner notes written by Will Friedwald to Peggy Lee and Benny Goodman, The Complete Recordings, 1941–1947, Columbia/Legacy, 1999
  28. ^ a b Oney, Dr. Tish (2020). Peggy Lee. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-5381-2847-3.
  29. ^ "Capitol Transcriptions ad" (PDF). Broadcasting. June 28, 1948. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  30. ^ Dunning, John (May 7, 1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Oxford University Press, US. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  31. ^ "Music As Written". Billboard. June 19, 1948. p. 21. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  32. ^ Strom, Robert (2005). Miss Peggy Lee: A Career Chronicle. McFarland. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7864-1936-4. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  33. ^ Tobler, John (1992). NME Rock 'N' Roll Years (1st ed.). London: Reed International Books. p. 56. CN 5585.
  34. ^ a b "Artist Peggy Lee". grammy.com. November 23, 2020.
  35. ^ Tobler, John (1992). NME Rock 'N' Roll Years (1st ed.). London: Reed International Books Ltd. p. 18. CN 5585.
  36. ^ Gabriel, Brian (September 4, 2015). "Lady and the Lawsuit: Peggy Lee's War With Disney". Cartoon Brew. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  37. ^ Bernstein, Sharon (March 21, 1991). "Peggy Lee Awarded Disney Damages : Courts: Amount from 'Lady and Tramp' video rights is in dispute. Singer contends it is $3.8 million but company says $2.3 million". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  38. ^ Barnes, Mike (November 18, 2014). "Nicki Lee Barbour Foster, Daughter of Peggy Lee, Dies at 71". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  39. ^ "Nicki Lee Barbour Foster". Mtexpress.com. November 19, 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  40. ^ "Nicki Lee Barbour Foster". legacy.com. Los Angeles Times. November 18, 2014. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  41. ^ McGee, David (January 18, 2013). "Peggy Lee: A Consummate Artist". Peggy Lee. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
  42. ^ Holden, Stephen (August 7, 1992). "Sounds Around Town". The New York Times.
  43. ^ Fordham, John (January 23, 2002). "Obituary: Peggy Lee". Theguardian.com. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  44. ^ Lucini, Gianni (May 28, 2018). "Peggy Lee, l'altra Norma Jean". Daily Green. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  45. ^ "Peggy Lee". North Dakota Office of the Governor. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  46. ^ "ASCAP Pied Piper Award". ascap.com. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  47. ^ Stein, Jeannine. "RSVP'S Wonderful : Society of Singers and Friends Galore Salute Jazzy Peggy Lee". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  48. ^ "Peggy Lee A Renaissance Woman With A Conscience". Women's International Center. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  49. ^ "Songwriter, composer, lyricist, jazz and pop vocal sensation and actress". Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  50. ^ Tyler, Don (2007). Hit Songs, 1900-1955: American Popular Music of the Pre-Rock Era. McFarland & Co. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-7864-2946-2. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  51. ^ Dye, Robert (August 2020). "ASCAP Announces Inaugural Peggy Lee Songwriter Award Winners: Michael Blum And Jenna Lotti". American Songwriter. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  52. ^ "Peggy Lee Induction Week - Songbook Hall of Fame". Songbook Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  53. ^ Cochran, Amanda (February 20, 2017). "Galveston family makes claim to margarita fame". KPRC-TV. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  54. ^ Chad (October 25, 2019). "Peggy Lee". Hollywood Walk of Fame. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  55. ^ Conlin, Bill (May 2, 1980). "Little Luis Gives Phils Big Lift". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  56. ^ Lelyveld, Joseph (July 10, 1971). "Friends Bid Louis Armstrong a Nostalgic Farewell at Simple Service". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  57. ^ Gupta, Anika (October 2008). "The Woman Behind Miss Piggy". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  58. ^ "Singer Peggy Lee's Portrait Hangs in N.D." Our Midland Daily News. No. Associated Press. May 15, 2003. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
  59. ^ Eriksmoen, Curt (May 27, 2012). "Tea, rose and muppet honor Peggy Lee". Bismarck Tribune. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  60. ^ Brice, Ted (October 24, 1982). "National rose award told". Seguin Gazette-Enterprise.
  61. ^ David Torresen (content) and David Uy (design) (June 23, 2003). "There'll Be Another Spring: A Tribute to Miss Peggy Lee". PeggyLee.com. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
  62. ^ David Torresen (content) and David Uy (design). "There'll Be Another Spring: A Tribute to Miss Peggy Lee". PeggyLee.com. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
  63. ^ Daniels, Robert L. (June 24, 2003). "There'll Be Another Spring – A Tribute to Miss Peggy Lee". Variety.com. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  64. ^ "GRAMMY Museum To Celebrate Peggy Lee's 100th Birthday With Panel Featuring Billie Eilish, k.d. lang & More Plus An Online Exhibit". grammy.com. May 20, 2020. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  65. ^ Andres, Jorge H. (February 4, 2002). "Música popular. Peggy Lee, irreemplazable". La Nacion. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  66. ^ Friedwald, Will (November 18, 2016). "It's Time to Retire 'Fever'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  67. ^ lang, k.d. (May 23, 2002). "k.d. lang remembers Peggy Lee". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  68. ^ Costello, Elvis (August 26, 2013). "Costello's 500". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  69. ^ Heckman, Don (January 25, 2002). "Peggy Lee Did Do Right by Her Material". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  70. ^ Campbell, Craig (October 23, 2019). "The story of Dusty Springfield, part one: Star blazed a trail for female singers in the music world". The Sunday Post. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  71. ^ Hansen, Liane (August 14, 2005). "Coming Up: Rita Coolidge". NPR. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  72. ^ Reed, Rex (January 29, 2007). "Darling Rita! Moreno Moves". Observer. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  73. ^ Larsen, Peter (August 22, 2020). "100 years after her birth, Peggy Lee celebrated with a book on her 'Century of Song'". Orange County Register. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  74. ^ "The ASCAP Foundation Peggy Lee Songwriter Award". ascap.com. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  75. ^ "Lady and the Tramp – 50th Anniversary Edition". PeggyLee.com. February 28, 2006.
  76. ^ "Peggy Lee 'Fever' continues during centennial celebration". Fort Worth Business. July 17, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  77. ^ "Peggy Lee Chart History". Billboard. December 2020. Retrieved December 31, 2020.

External links[edit]